Subtest 1 - Verbal Reasoning
On this page, there are 12 verbal reasoning sample questions which you should complete within 5 minutes and 45 seconds.
Questions 1 - 4
The Mechanical Turk was a fake chess-playing machine, constructed and unveiled in 1770 by Wolfgang von Kempelen to impress the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. The Turk appeared to be able to play a strong game of chess against a human opponent, as well as perform the knight's tour, a puzzle that requires the player to move a knight to occupy every square of a chessboard exactly once. Until its destruction by fire, it was exhibited by various owners as an automaton, though it was eventually revealed to be an elaborate hoax.
Following word of its debut, interest in the machine grew across Europe. Kempelen, however, was more interested in his other projects and avoided exhibiting the Turk, often lying about the machine's repair status to prospective challengers. In the decade following its debut at Schönbrunn Palace, the Turk only played one opponent, Sir Robert Murray Keith, a Scottish noble, and Kempelen went as far as dismantling the Turk entirely following the match. Kempelen was quoted as referring to the invention as a "mere bagatelle", as he was not pleased with its popularity and would rather continue work on steam engines and machines that replicated human speech.
In 1781, Kempelen was ordered by Emperor Joseph II to reconstruct the Turk and deliver it to Vienna for a state visit from Grand Duke Paul of Russia and his wife. The appearance was so successful that Grand Duke Paul suggested a tour of Europe for the Turk, a request to which Kempelen reluctantly agreed. The Turk began its European tour in 1783, beginning with an appearance in France in April. Upon arrival in Paris in May 1783, it was displayed to the public and played a variety of opponents, including a lawyer named Mr. Bernard who was a second rank in chess ability. Following the sessions at Versailles, demands increased for a match with François-André Danican Philidor, who was considered the best chess player of his time. Moving to the Café de la Régence, the machine played many of the most skilled players, often losing, until securing a match with Philidor at the Académie des Sciences. While Philidor won his match with the Turk, Philidor's son noted that his father called it "his most fatiguing game of chess ever!" The Turk's final game in Paris was against Benjamin Franklin, who was serving as ambassador to France from the United States.
Following the machine’s debut, Kempelen was reluctant to display the Turk because:
(A) The machine was undergoing repair.
(B) He had dismantled it following its match with Sir Robert Murray Keith.
(C) He preferred to spend time on his other projects.
(D) It had been destroyed by fire.
Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the passage?
(A) The Turk began its tour of Europe in April of 1783.
(B) During its European tour, the Turk won almost all of its matches.
(C) Philidor found his match with the Turk challenging.
(D) The Turk’s visit to Vienna preceded its appearance in Paris.
According to the passage, the Turk played the following individuals:
(A) Benjamin Franklin, Grand Duke Paul, François-André Danican Philidor
(B) François-André Danican Philidor, Kempelen, Sir Robert Murray Keith
(C) Benjamin Franklin, Emperor Joseph II, Mr. Bernard
(D) François-André Danican Philidor, Mr. Bernard, Benjamin Franklin
Which of the following statements is best supported by the passage?
(A) The Turk was unveiled at Schönbrunn Palace.
(B) Kempelen reconstructed the Turk in 1781 for a state visit from Emperor Joseph II.
(C) The Turk played first-rate chess players including Philidor and Mr. Bernard.
(D) During its career, the Turk visited Austria, France, and Turkey.
Questions 5 - 8
There are several species of citrus trees whose fruits are called limes, including the Key lime (Citrus aurantiifolia), Persian lime (Citrus latifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), and desert lime (Citrus glauca). Persian limes are more phototoxic than Key limes. The difficulty in identifying exactly which species of fruit are called lime in different parts of the English-speaking world is increased by the botanical complexity of the citrus genus itself, to which the majority of limes belong. Species of this genus readily interbreed, and it is only recently that genetic studies have started to throw light on the structure of the genus. The majority of cultivated lime species are in reality bred from two different “parent” species through hybridisation, produced from the citron (Citrus medica), the mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata), the pomelo (Citrus maxima) and in particular with many lime varieties, the micrantha (Citrus micrantha).
Although the precise origin is uncertain, wild limes are believed to have first grown in Indonesia or Southeast Asia, and then were transported to the Mediterranean region and North Africa around 1000 CE. To prevent scurvy during the 19th century, British sailors were issued a daily allowance of citrus, such as lemon, and later switched to lime. The use of citrus was initially a closely guarded military secret, as scurvy was a common scourge of various national navies, and the ability to remain at sea for lengthy periods without contracting the disorder was a huge benefit for the British military. British sailors thus acquired the nickname "Limey" because of their use of limes.
Raw limes are 88% water, 10% carbohydrates and less than 1% each of fat and protein. Only vitamin C content at 35% of the Daily Value (DV) per 100 g serving is significant for nutrition, with other nutrients present in low DV amounts. Lime juice contains about 47 g/L of citric acid, slightly less than the citric acid of lemon juice, nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, and about five times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice. Phototoxicity in lime species is due to higher concentrations of furanocoumarins, and lime peel contains higher concentrations of furanocoumarins than lime pulp (by one or two orders of magnitude).
Citrus medica, Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima and Citrus micrantha were produced by hybridisation.
(C) Can’t Tell
According to the passage, limes were the primary source of citrus for British sailors in the 19th century.
(C) Can’t Tell
The citric acid content of orange juice is higher than the citric acid content of an equivalent volume of grapefruit juice.
(C) Can’t Tell
Citrus latifolia contains higher concentrations of furanocoumarins than Citrus aurantiifolia.
(C) Can’t Tell
Questions 9 - 12
There is no doubt about it: the child protection system is in crisis, and it is manifestly failing Aboriginal children and young people. Despite the hundreds of millions of dollars spent on removing children and depositing them in a revolving door of unstable placements, homelessness, substance abuse and prison, the rate of Aboriginal children being removed from their families is expected to triple by 2037.
In Victoria, Aboriginal children are 15.8 times more likely to be removed from their homes than their non-Aboriginal peers. Despite making up 1% of the population, Aboriginal children represent 20% of children in out-of-home care. Since Kevin Rudd’s apology to the stolen generations in 2008, the rate of Aboriginal children being removed from their homes has doubled nationally, and tripled in Victoria, from 660 in 2008 to 2,091 in 2017.
The rate of removal of Australia’s First Nations children is one of the highest in the world. In 2016 the rate of Aboriginal children in out-of-home care in Victoria was double the rate of Indigenous children in out-of-home care in Canada, and 10 times the rate of Māori children in New Zealand.
Why? It is not – and I can’t believe I have to say this – it is not because we don’t love our children. It’s because the system is individualistic, pathologising and reactionary, and what should be the last resort is the only resort. In a majority of cases, the removal of Aboriginal children from their families and communities is a Band-Aid fix on a gushing wound, and has far-reaching and long-lasting consequences for children, families, carers and communities. Despite the myth that Aboriginal children are removed from abusive homes, more often than not this is not the case. The rates of removal for cases of physical or sexual abuse are actually higher in the general population. In 75% of cases Aboriginal children are removed from their homes because of exposure to family violence or a parent’s inability to care for them. This “inability” is often a result of parents’ own mental illness or extreme disadvantage, with a Victorian review of the cases of Aboriginal children in out-of-home care finding that parental mental illness was present in 60% of cases.
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) There are more Aboriginal children in out-of-home care in Victoria than there are Indigenous children in out-of-home care in Canada.
(B) Some believe that Aboriginal children are removed from their homes because they are not loved.
(C) Kevin Rudd’s apology to the stolen generations led to an increase in the removal of Aboriginal children.
(D) The removal of Aboriginal children is regarded by the child protection system as a method of last resort.
Which of the following best describes the author’s tone?
What does the author intend to suggest about the removal of Aboriginal children when she compares it to a “Band-Aid fix on a gushing wound”?
(A) It is an effective albeit temporary solution.
(B) It is an inexpensive solution.
(C) It only helps those children with physical injuries.
(D) It does not fix the underlying problem.
Which of the following statements is not supported by the passage?
(A) The rate of Aboriginal children being taken away from their families will continue to increase well into the next two decades.
(B) 2091 Aboriginal children were removed from their homes in Victoria in 2017.
(C) Physical and sexual abuse are the two most common reasons for removing Aboriginal children from their homes.
(D) In some parts of Australia, Aboriginal children are grossly over-represented in out-of-home care.